The child’s self-concept, or the ideas that a child has about himself or herself has a direct impact on emotional and social well-being.

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CONSCIOUS

PRIDE AND HAPPINESS

IF SUPEREGO IS OVERLY STRICT

SOME SHAME AND GUILT IS NEEDED

Self-Concept

Self-concept is the image that we hold about ourselves. These ideas or images stem from the beliefs that a child has about him or herself as well as how other individuals view that particular child. Self-concept is what children think about themselves, how they evaluate themselves, and perceives themselves.

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· The child’s self-concept, or the ideas that a child has about himself or herself has a direct impact on emotional and social well-being. The categorical self emerges when a child becomes aware of himself or herself as a separate being from others, and that they are an object in the world. It is here that children continue to develop their self-concept.

Self-Esteem in Early Years

· SELF-ESTEEM

· PREOPERATIONAL STAGE

· EASY-GOING TEMPERAMENT

· DIFFICULT TEMPERAMENT

Self-esteem, the judgements we make about our own worth and the emotions that are associated with such judgements, is another aspect of self concept. Self-esteem directly affects emotional experiences, future behaviors, and long-term psychological adjustments.

Self Esteem in Older Preschoolers

By the age of four, preschoolers have developed self awareness and even self-judgements in several areas of their life, like learning, relationships, play, etc.

SELF-JUDGMENTS

NO INTERRELATIONS

NO ASSIMILATION OF JUDGEMENTS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

COMPETENCIES INCORRECTLY APPRAISED

Autobiographical Memory

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· As children’s self-awareness matures, so does their autobiographical memory, which is their remembered self. The remembered self includes accounts of experiences as a child as well as memories that are shared with the children by adults. The autobiographical memory greatly influences a child’s self-concept and self-esteem.

Peer Sociability

· PEER SOCIABILITY

· PROSOCIAL EVENTS

· COMMUNICATION ABILITY AND PEER RELATIONSHIPS

· TEACHING SOCIAL SKILLS

There are several areas in a child’s life that greatly affect the ways in which they interact socially with their peers. As children age, their relationships with their peers and their sociability advance. Peers play a critically important role in children’s well-being, because as their sociability develops, so does the children’s understanding of self and of others. Peer sociability is the interactions and friendships with others. Peer relationships in early childhood have a long-term impact on children. Positive peer relationships especially impact children because they serve as a protective factor against later psychological issues. On the other hand, negative peer relationships, such as peer rejection, are connected to poorer psychological and educational outcomes for children.

Levels of Peer Sociability

Peer sociability in the context of play affects children’s emotional and social development. Since play is the major activity of young children, much of what is known about children is in this context. For example, Mildred Parten is one of the first to study children in the context of play in 1930s. She identified that peer sociability proceeds in four levels.

NON-SOCIAL ACTIVITY

PARALLEL

ASSOCIATIVE

COOPERATIVE

CHILDREN ENGAGE IN DIFFERENT LEVELS OF PLAY

Sociodramatic Play

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· Sociodramatic play, which is a type of Parten’s cooperative level of play, is a more cognitively advanced form of play. This play becomes more common in preschool years. This type of play supports cognitive, social, and emotional development.

Gender and Cultural Differences in Play

· GENDER DIFFERENCES

· PLAY IN INDIA

· PLAY IN CHINA

· RURAL AND URBAN DIFFERENCES

Girls engage in more sociodramatic play and boys engage in more rough and tumble types of interactions. Regardless of the type, play requires children to understand the emotions of themselves and others, exercise self-control, and respond to others’ verbal and nonverbal cues.

Friendships

Friendships for toddlers and preschoolers differs greatly from the components that make up a friendship for adult. Older toddlers and preschoolers have friendships, but they do not have the long-term enduring quality based on mutual trust, as adult friendships and relationships do. Children’s friendships are primarily based on pleasurable play and sharing toys, which lasts approximately until the age of seven, which is also the end of the psychosocial stage that Freud identified. Friendships are typically related to proximity. Children form friendships with other children at their daycare or preschool.

CHILDHOOD FRIENDSHIP

BENEFITS

INFLUENCE OF ADULTS AND PEERS

INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS

Moral Development

·

 

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