Physical Activity and Special Populations

Coral Reefs
January 5, 2021
Analyze a Health Theory or Model
January 5, 2021

Initial Discussion responses should be around 200 words. Responses to your classmates or instructor should be around 75 words.

Topic: Physical Activity and Special Populations

Initial Post

Choose one of the special populations discussed in this unit: Heart disease, obesity, or diabetes. Discuss how exercise and physical activity can specifically benefit people with the condition you chose. Summarize the Guidelines for Physical Activity for the cohort you chose. What are some precautions or considerations the fitness professional should be aware of when working with clients in this cohort?

Classmate Post #1

It is a known fact that physical activity prevents obesity and plays a major role in correcting it as well. However, physical activity can also play a major role in health improvement for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). If you are at risk or have T2DM, physical activity can prevent or slow the onset of T2DM, according to an article published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (2010). It was also stated in the article that T2DM has a direct correlation with obesity and physical activity that induces significant weight loss can lower your risk up to 58%. Physical activity also improves blood glucose levels and does wonders for people also suffering from diagnoses secondary to T2DM such as high cholesterol, hypertension and joint pain. The Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise article recommends a combination of aerobic and resistance strength training for individuals with T2DM. Those with this ailment should engage in moderate intensity aerobics at least 3 times per week for a total of 150 minute (Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, December 2010). Strength training should be performed at least twice a week using 5-10 exercises with 10-15 reps each at a moderate to vigorous intensity for best results (Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, December 2010). Clients with T2DM are at risk, although minimal, for hypoglycemic episodes during physical activity and should be started at a reasonable pace when beginning a new physical activity regimen to avert fainting or diabetic crisis (Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, December 2010). I also feel that close monitoring of the diet is very important for the diabetic client as well. Because of unstable blood sugars and the potential for it to bottom out with exertion, proper nutrition should be stressed to ensure that this does not happen. Now although the physical activity guidelines are hardly overwhelming to me, to an overweight, diabetic, it will be. Physically the amount of weight the clients body has to support can cause joint pain when doing physical activity. Diabetes can cause extreme fatigue and almost immediate exhaustion due to blood sugar highs and lows, and this should be considered for this cohort as well. Therefore with this client, I feel like slow and steady will win this race. It will not only prevent overwhelming the client physically, but also mentally. As time progresses, the amount of minutes spent doing physical activity and the intensity can be increased gradually until the individual with this cohort is meeting or exceeding the 2008 physical activity guidelines.


(2010, December). Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association Joint Position Statement. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(12), 2,282–2,303. Retrieved from

Initial Post #2

Hey Everyone,

This unit we will discuss some of our special populations including diabetics. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more common than type 1 diabetes with about 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes having T2D. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s report, 30.3 million Americans, or 9.4% of the US population have diabetes.1 more alarming, an estimated 84 million more American adults have prediabetes, which if not treated, will advance to diabetes within five years.

People with type 1 diabetes are unable to produce any insulin at all. People with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin, however, the cells in the muscles, liver and fat tissue are inefficient at absorbing the insulin and cannot regulate glucose well. As a result, the body tries to compensate by having the pancreas pump out more insulin. The pancreas slowly loses the ability to produce enough insulin, and as a result, the cells don’t get the energy they need to function properly.

Type 2 diabetes is a progressive condition, meaning that the longer someone has it, the more “help” they will need to manage blood glucose levels. This may require more medications and eventually, injected insulin could be needed. When you have type 2 diabetes, physical activity is an important component of your treatment plan. It is also important to have a healthy meal plan and maintain your blood glucose level through medications or insulin, if necessary. If you stay fit and active throughout your life, you will be able to better control your diabetes and keep your blood glucose level in the correct range. Controlling your blood glucose level is essential to preventing long-term complications, such as nerve pain and kidney disease.

Prof. Kim

Resource: Exercise Makes It Easier to Control Your Diabetes Written by Lisa M. Leontis RN, ANP-C | Reviewed by Amy Hess-Fischl MS, RD, LDN, BC-ADM, CDE

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