Identify the three main types of acellular pathogens. Describe what acellular means. Also, explain how the structure of a virion is useful for the virion and how it changes upon cell entry.Characteristics of Viruses
Identify the three main types of acellular pathogens. Describe what acellular means.
Describe the structure of a virion (include in your answer capsid and envelope). Also, explain how the structure of a virion is useful for the virion and how it changes upon cell entry.
Explain why most viruses only infect a particular host organism and only specific cells in the host. What kinds of cells can be infected by viruses? Describe what is meant by the term bacteriophage (aka phage).
Describe what an enveloped virion is and how it is different from a naked virion.
Describe how a virus can obtain an envelope. Describe the similarities and differences between a virus’ envelope and a cell’s plasma membrane. Describe the function of proteins in the viral envelope in infection.
Describe why viruses can’t reproduce outside a host cell and what they need the host cell for.
Describe lytic replication and its 5 stages.
Describe how the lysogenic replication cycle is different from the lytic replication cycle. Describe prophage, lysogenic conversion and induction.
Describe how animal viruses attach to cells. Describe the difference between the following types of viral cell entry: direct penetration, membrane fusion, and endocytosis. Identify which method the following viruses use to enter a cell: herpesvirus, poliovirus, and measles virus.
Culturing Viruses in the Laboratory
Describe how viruses are cultures in a lab and what they require.
Other Parasitic Particles: Viroids and Prions
Describe prions and identify diseases caused by prions. Also, identify how prions are unique infectious agents. Identify how prions are destroyed and what treatments are available for prion diseases.
Chapter 15: Innate Immunity
An Overview of the Body’s Defenses
Identify the three abilities a pathogen must have to cause disease in a host.
The Body’s First Line of Defense – Innate Non-specific immunity
Identify the immunological three lines of defense against a pathogen.
Describe the different ways that the skin defends against pathogens.
Describe the different ways that normal microbiota can defend against pathogens.The Body’s Second Line of Defense – Innate Specific Immunity
Describe when the second line of defense is used and how it is different from the first line of defense.Identify and describe the different components of blood and how they are used to defend against pathogens.Describe the purpose of phagocytosis and describe the six steps of this process.Identify which cells can attack/kill pathogens without phagocytosis and describe how they are able to do this and if they target certain types of pathogens.Identify and describe the steps of inflammation and how they are beneficial in fighting infection. Also, describe the difference between acute and chronic inflammation.
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