HR?Trends?and?Forecasting

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December 15, 2017
Cooperative Learning Environments
December 15, 2017

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Final?Deadline3?days?(Dec?11,?2016?at?05:08?PM)
Type?of?assignment
Term?Paper
Number?of?pages
5
Language?style
US?English
Type?of?service
Academic?paper?writing
Academic?level
Master`s
Subject
HR
Paper?format
APA
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Description
Review?the?IBM?case?and?address?the?following?issues?in?an?integrated?essay:
What?are?the?key?features?of?the?contrasting?organizational?structures?that?describe?IBM?s?HR?organization
before?and?after?the?change?
Where?will?HR?employees?have?the?greatest?challenge?adapting?to?the?new?system?and?where?will?their?roles,
rewards?and?work?challenges?remain?more?constant??To?what?extent?do?you?see?capability,?opportunity?and
motivation?changing?
Discuss?the?future?profile?of?HR?leaders?and?non?HR?leaders?in?systems?such?as?IBM?s.
Prepare?a?5??to?6?page?paper?(not?including?title?page?and?reference?list)?that?addresses?these?issues.?Include?at
least?5?library?sources?to?strengthen?the?discussion.?Please?upload?your?paper?by?the?module?due?date.
Assignment?Expectations
Your?paper?should?demonstrate?critical?thinking?and?analysis?of?the?relevant?issues?and?HRM?actions,?drawing
upon?all?of?the?required?background?readings?and?any?relevant?sources?from?your?prior?courses?and?your?own
library?and?Internet?research?(reputable?websites).
Prepare?a?paper?that?is?professionally?presented?(including?a?cover?page,?a??List?of?References,??and?a?strong
introduction?and?conclusion).?Proofread?your?paper?carefully?for?grammar,?spelling?and?word?usage?errors.
Address?all?aspects?of?the?assignment?as?stated?above.
Limit?your?Internet?searching?and?focus?instead?on?library?searches?and?be?sure?to?bring?in?information?from?the
background?readings.
Give?authors?credit?for?their?work.?Cite?sources?of?borrowed?information?in?the?body?of?your?text?as?footnotes,
numbered?end?notes?or?APA?style?of?referencing.
See??The?Trident?Guide?to?the?Well?Written?Paper??(instruction?on?writing?papers,?citing?sources,?proper
referencing,?and?so?forth).
Review?the?IBM?case?and?address?the?following?issues?in?an?integrated?essay:
What?are?the?key?features?of?the?contrasting?organizational?structures?that?describe?IBM?s?HR?organization
before?and?after?the?change?
Where?will?HR?employees?have?the?greatest?challenge?adapting?to?the?new?system?and?where?will?their?roles,
rewards?and?work?challenges?remain?more?constant??To?what?extent?do?you?see?capability,?opportunity?and
motivation?changing?
Discuss?the?future?profile?of?HR?leaders?and?non?HR?leaders?in?systems?such?as?IBM?s.
Prepare?a?5??to?6?page?paper?(not?including?title?page?and?reference?list)?that?addresses?these?issues.?Include?at
least?5?library?sources?to?strengthen?the?discussion.?Please?upload?your?paper?by?the?module?due?date.
Assignment?Expectations
Your?paper?should?demonstrate?critical?thinking?and?analysis?of?the?relevant?issues?and?HRM?actions,?drawing
upon?all?of?the?required?background?readings?and?any?relevant?sources?from?your?prior?courses?and?your?own
08/12/2016 Register now with WritersHub.org!
http://www.writershub.org/writer/orders/96856#instructions 4/6
library?and?Internet?research?(reputable?websites).
Prepare?a?paper?that?is?professionally?presented?(including?a?cover?page,?a??List?of?References,??and?a?strong
introduction?and?conclusion).?Proofread?your?paper?carefully?for?grammar,?spelling?and?word?usage?errors.
Address?all?aspects?of?the?assignment?as?stated?above.
Limit?your?Internet?searching?and?focus?instead?on?library?searches?and?be?sure?to?bring?in?information?from?the
background?readings.
Give?authors?credit?for?their?work.?Cite?sources?of?borrowed?information?in?the?body?of?your?text?as?footnotes,
numbered?end?notes?or?APA?style?of?referencing.
See??The?Trident?Guide?to?the?Well?Written?Paper??(instruction?on?writing?papers,?citing?sources,?proper
referencing,?and?so?forth).
Background:
Levenson,?A.?(2013).?The?Promise?of?Big?Data?for?HR.?People?&?Strategy,?36(4),?22?26.?Retrieved?from
EBSCOHost,?accession?number?94589557.
Safran,?G.?(2004).?Converting?HR?data?into?HR?information.?Canadian?HR?Reporter,?17(16),?16.?Retrieved?from
ProQuest?in?the?Trident?Online?Library.
Wingrove,?C.?(2012).?Manage?critical?HR?data.?Strategic?HR?Review,?11(6),?344?345.?Retrieved?from?ProQuest
in?the?Trident?Online?Library.

Strategic HR Management
case study
IBM?s Global Talent Management Strategy:
The Vision of the Globally Integrated Enterprise
By John W. Boudreau, Ph.D.
Revised with SHRM Permission, Trident University International
Project team
Author: John W. Boudreau, Ph.D.
SHRM project contributor: Nancy A. Woolever, SPHR
External contributors: Randy MacDonald
Richard Calo
Michelle Rzepnicki
Copy editing: Katya Scanlan
Design: Jihee Lombardi
? 2010 Society for Human Resource Management. John W. Boudreau,Ph.D.
Development of this case was made possible by a grant from the Society for Human Resource Management
and the National Academy of Human Resources. Information presented was current as of the time the case was
written. Any errors are solely the author?s.
Note to HR faculty and instructors: SHRM cases and modules are intended for use in HR classrooms at
universities.
For more information, please contact:
SHRM Academic Initiatives
1800 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA
Phone: (800) 283-7476 Fax: (703) 535-6432
Web: www.shrm.org/education/hreducation
10-0432-part C
? 2010 Society for Human resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D. 1
STRATEGY
DEMAnD &
SuPPLY PLAn
ACQuIRE &
TRAnSITIOn
DEVELOP DEPLOY EMPLOYEE
PROGRAMS
Manage taxonomy
and resource
profiile
Recruit employees
Source contractors
Develop workforce
management
strategy
Perform
operational
optimization
Manage
development
programs
Benefits
Assess supply Perform
onboarding
Workforce
programs Manage supply Develop learning
strategy
Develop individuals Perform
offboarding Manage demand
Perform transfers
Develop HR
strategy
Perform capacity
planning
Plan development
portfolio
Identify, select
and assign
Performance, pay
and incentives
case Study
IntroductIon
Between 2002 and 2009, IBM had created a unique workforce management
initiative (WMI) that reflected the increasing need for global organizations to
have a transparent and comprehensive view oftheir talent supply, requirements and
implications for business strategy. The system was successful, being used bymore
than 80% of all IBMers as a natural way for individuals to track and plan their
development and performance, for managers to estimate talent requirements and
availability, and for IBM?s strategic planners to gather data from this ?living market?
to estimate future opportunities and challenges.
Connecting the WMI to the Employment LIfe Cycle Process
Implementing the WMI system required creating or incorporating specific
?technologies?into every stageofthe employmentlife cycle,fromplanning through
deployment. It involved tools for HR, IBM managers and IBM employees. The
box below shows the technologies and the areas of the employment process they
supported.
Technologies Technologies Technologies Technologies Technologies Technologies Technologies
Workforce Expertise Demand Global Skillmaps (Skill Professional Manager Portal
Evolution Assessment Profile Capture Opportunity Gap Closure) Marketplace and Workforce
/ SEAS Metro Marketplace moving to CV Wizard Dashboard
CV Wizard OnTheMark Metro Learning@IBM Expertise WMI SPoE for
Learning@ Capacity Learning@ Assessment Employees ?Your
IBM (Learning Planning Contractors IBM Explorer Profile / SEAS career? portlet
Management CSA, CITRuS (Career) WMI integrated
Contractor with Workforce
Registration Dashboard for
(process for on/ Managers
offboarding)
2 ? 2010 Society for Human resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D.
IBM?s HR Organization Before Being Redesigned to Reflect the Globally Integrated Enterprise
The implication of this system was that a great deal of the day-to-day work involved
in workforce management would reside with managers, team leaders and employees.
Yet, overseeing, maintaining and improving such a system would require talented
HR leaders. Those leaders might be deployed in central organizations that supported
workforce management across the globe. They might be located in functionally
specific units (such as units that were experts on talent acquisition,training
or organization design) that were assigned to particular regions or countries.
Moreover, in the existing HR organization at IBM, there were several established
roles. Some HR leaders served as ?business unit HR leaders? who worked directly
with businesses, regions or countries to support their particular strategies and
HR needs. Others served in ?centers of expertise? and provided specific expertise
and consulting in areas such as compensation, benefits, staffing, development and
labor relations. Still others served in HR ?operations,? maintaining and enhancing
the supporting infrastructure of the function, including information technology,
communication, legal compliance, and data analysis and reporting. The exhibit
below shows IBM?s organization structure before its redesign.
SVP, HR
Diversity Comp. & Benefits Learning Workforce
Relations Global Talent HR On Demand
Global
Technology
Services
Global
Business
Services
Integrated
Operations
Systems &
Tech
Software
Group
Sales &
Distribution
Corporate &
Admin
While it was state of the art by traditional standards, the strict divisions between
HR roles would not allow enough fluid movement and integration across those
roles. For example, prior to the global HR transformation, the top row of boxes
below the senior vice president of HR had an HR leader supporting each of the
major HR functional areas such as learning, compensation and benefits, diversity,
and workforce relations. The bottom set of boxes shows the assignments of other
individuals to be HR leaders for the major business units and service areas of IBM.
Not only was this division of expertise potentially more expensive, it limited the kind
of flexibility needed by a more dynamic and globally integrated organization.
? 2010 Society for Human resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D. 3
Applying Process Excellence PrincIplesto HR
A central tenet of IBM?s view of the evolution of world markets was that in order
to support a truly globally integrated enterprise, the underlying functions that
supported the enterprise (such as sales, marketing, IT and HR) needed to evolve to
be ?globally integrated support functions? (GISF). A graphical illustration used by
IBM to depict the idea is shown in the box below.
What this meant was that HR would need to approach itself as an end-to-end
globally integrated solution. What engineering and solution principles might help
HR become more efficient and effective in how it moved talent around the world?
How could existing HR resources be used more effectively? How might the different
HR roles (business partner, center of expertise, operations, global center, etc.) be
arrayed most effectively to supportthis?
The answer came in many forms, some reflected inthe broadorganization design
and mission of HR, and others reflected in subtle changes in HR roles. This was
apparentintheneworganizationstructureforHRthat emergedastheimplications
ofanend-to-endsolutionperspectiveonHRbecame clearer.Theneworganization
structure is shownin the exhibit on page48.
customer fullfillment
Procurement
global logistics
global support
functions
? Consolidate
sales operations
It
marketing processes
communications
c & N
finance
Human resources
legal
real estate
? Reengineer
? Eliminate
? Automate
4 ? 2010 Society for Human resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D.
In the new organization design, HR processes such as learning, recruitment and
compensationwere placedwhere theywere most effective.Also, as shown in the
second row of boxes in the exhibit, the leaders of each functional area of HR were
?dual-hatted,? meaning that they led not only a significant HR functional area, such
as compensation or recruitment, but atthe same time they supported a large IBM
business area as the HR ?business partner.? For example, in the left-hand box, the
HR leader for the ?Recruitment? HR function was also the HR business leader for
?GBS,? or Global Business Services. This pairing was made because GBS was the
largest user of recruitment services. On the top right, the person in charge of HR
Business Development was also the ?business leader? for the Softwarebusiness.
These roles were grouped because the Software group had traditionally done the
most acquisitions.
IBM?s HR Organization Before After Redesigned to Reflect the Globally Integrated Enterprise
SVP, HR
GBS &
Recruitment
Design, Deploy &
Deliver
Recruitment
Staffing Ops
GTS &
Compensation
Design & Deploy
Employee Comp
Exec Comp
Sales Incentive Progs
Recognition Programs
Service Delivery &
HR Delivery
Deliver
Employee Svc Ctrs
Vendor Mgmt
S&D & Labor & STG & Geo HR SWG & HR
Empl Rel Support Business Dev
Design & Support Design, Deploy & Design, Deploy & Deliver
(Based in geos) Deliver Geo HR Commerc Engage & SO
Labor Relations Coverage M&A
Employee Relations Divestitures
Unit Facing Comp Teams
CHQ & Research
IBM Ctr for Learning
& Dev
Diversity & Wkfc
Programs
Enterprise
Support
Integrated HR
Services Team
Design, Deploy & Deliver
Leadership Develop (ER, TR, TT)
Management & Exec Development
Executive Search
Unit facing Leadership Dev Teams
Change Mgmt/OD-OE
Learning Programs & Methods
BU Support-Research & CHQ HR
Design, Deploy
Diversity Progs/Constituencies
Perf Mgmt Progs
Capacity Planning: WMI
Mobility & Exchange Progs
Labor Cost: Restructuring
Employee Experience
Unit facing Wkfce Mgmt Teams
Execute EO Compliance
Deliver Design, Deploy & Deliver
Global Admin HR Globalization &
Equity Operations (Off Svcs) Transformation
Shareholder Relations HR Program Management
Govt/External Relations HR Intelligence
Compliance Reviews Retirement Benefits
HR Development Health Benefits & Safety Svcs
Develop & Deliver HRIT
? 2010 Society for Human resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D. 5
PuttingHRProcessesWhere TheyareMostEffectIve
One significant idea was that HR activities, like IBM?s talent more generally, would
be placed where they could be most cost-effective. For example, administration of
IBM?s learning system had been based in Florida, but the servers that supported
the data system for learning were located elsewhere. Why not move those servers
to Florida so that the program implementation and data support could be more
integrated?
A growing realization was that with global changes in the labor force, the heaviest
WMI workload was going to be in Asia. Yet, HR administration and support had
traditionally been housed in the United States. The support center was a 24/7
operation to be sure, but if the heaviest demand was going to occur during business
hours in Asia (the middle of the night in the U.S.), did it really make sense to have
U.S. HR staff working in the middle of the night instead of moving the support
center to Asia?
Dual-HattIng Global Processes and Business Partnership
An implication of the dual-hatting model within the Global Integrated Enterprise
was that there would be a much stronger connection between the day-to-day talent
planning at the business level and the operations that were supported centrally.
The challenge became how to develop and motivate HR to have an eye on both the
central and the business-specific elements of performance. Traditionally, it was very
easy for the HR operations to become disconnected from the business operations,
because HR leaders working as business partners might not be familiar with the
global process operations and vice versa.
The GIE model and WMI required something different. This organizational
model change requires integration between line HR and staff HR initiatives and
day-to-day activities. The idea was that about 100 HR folks would run the WMI
full time, but it would work because more than 500 HR business partners would
understand it and help their business units use it on a day-to-day basis. This meant
that the WMI processes needed to be simple, intuitive, easily learned and applied,
and the organizational model had to be integrated in a way that enabled such
implementation.
The ?dual-hatting? of top HR leaders, described in the exhibit on page 48, played
a key role. This had the effect of keeping the global processes as simple as possible.
It is easy for such processes to grow in elegance and complexity when the person
responsible for them is solely focused on enhancing them and constantly adding
the latest innovation. However, when the person running a global process also
has responsibility for supporting a unit with thousands of employees, the amount
of available time becomes very limited. This sets a natural priority so that only
the most vital and impactful innovations are made in the process, and the process
itself is relentlessly simplified. Otherwise, no one would have time to do both jobs
effectively!
6 ? 2010 Society for Human resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D.
Success and Challenges on the HorIzon
The successful evolution of IBM to a GIE and the development of the WMI to
support it through talent was justifiably regarded as a financial and organizational
success. IBM could point to its own evolution as an example of the kind of
transformation its products and services could engender in its customers.
IBM?s talent management system was fast becoming a uniform?yet constantly
adapting?tool not only with the HR function but throughout the organization.
The underlying logic of the Taxonomy was not only enhancing utilization rates
and responsiveness, but also supporting a stronger ?decision science? for talent
management by seamlessly integrating demand, supply and development. The
increased clarity between the ?demand signals? in the businesses and the responseof
the talent system allowed greater speed and clarity. For example, IBMers noted that
a decision to manufacture chips for video games changes the skill set needs of IBM?s
chip manufacturing in as little as six months. IBM?s HR partners must be ready
to work with business leaders and flex to that new demand immediately once the
business decision is made. The Taxonomy and the WMI allow those business signals
to be translated into specific talent capabilities, which can be arrayed againstlearning
assets and talent movements. Rich Calo used an ice hockey analogy and likened this
to allowing HR to ?skate to where the puck is going to be? rather than reacting to
changes after they occur.
This success brought its share of newquestions.
n How would the new structure and roles for the HR function change the necessary
qualifications for future IBM HR leaders? For example, would the blending of
the roles of business support and centralized functional support create a greater
need for HR leaders adept at both business and traditional HR capabilities? Would
traditionally trained HR recruits have the necessary background in business?
Would traditionally trained MBAs have the requisite capabilities in the disciplines
of HR?
n How would the new structure and roles change the necessary qualifications for
the role of leaders outside the HR profession, as talent strategists and decision
makers? As more key decisions about talent demand, supply and development were
made by business leaders working directly with employees, what skills should all
business leaders be expected to have regarding fundamental principles of learning,
engagement, motivation and employee relations? Should IBM?s business leaders
be as informed about principles of talent markets and decisions as they were about
principles of decisions and markets for money, customers, supply chains and
technology?
? 2010 Society for Human resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D. 7
n How would IBM leverage its success with the WMI directly into products, revenue
and customer service? Few organizations had systems that so seamlessly integrated
talent with business needs, and many organizations were willing to investto
attain such systems. To what extent could IBM?s lessons in developing its internal
talent systems become services and products for its clients? Who should run such a
business?
n How could HR retain the vital balance between the ?soft? and the ?hard?
benefits? The WMI enhanced HR?s role as a data-driven and analytically powerful
discipline, capable of solving talent issues with the kind of mathematics and logic
previously reserved only for more tangible resources. Was there a danger thatthe
intangible and unquantifiable aspects of IBM?s employment relationship might be
lost in a sea of numbers, equations and optimization rules? After all, people are
still not simply elements of an inventory or products awaiting shipment. Should
the job of retaining IBM?s intangible values and employment brand be explicitly
assigned, or should it be a specific accountability for every business and HR leader?
8 ? 2010 Society for Human resource Management. John W. Boudreau, Ph.D.
References and Endnotes
Boudreau, J. W.,Ramstad, P.M.(2007). BeyondHR(chapters 6-9).Boston:
Harvard Business School Press.
Cascio, W.F.,&Boudreau, J. W.(2008).Investing inpeople. London, UK: Pearson.
Lawler, E. E., III, & Boudreau, J. W.(2009). Achieving excellencein human
resourcesmanagement.PaloAlto:StanfordUniversityPress.
Ready,D.,&Conger,J.(2007,June1).Make your companyatalentfactory.
Harvard Business Review.
1 Palmisano, S. J. The globally integrated enterprise. Foreign Affairs, 85(3), 127-136.
2 Ibid.
3 Ibid. p. 129.
4 Lesser, Ringo & Blumberg. (2007). Transforming the workforce: Seven keys to succeeding in a globally integrated world (p. 3). Armonk, nY: IBM Institute for Business Value
Executive Brief.
5 Bartlett, C., & McClean, A. (2006). GE?s Jeff Immelt: The voyage from MBA to CEO. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing.
6 An excellent background reading for this case is: Applegate, L. M., Austin, R., & Collins, E. (2009). IBM?s decade of transformation: Turnaround to growth. Boston, MA: Harvard
Business School. Other sources include: Austin, R., & nolan R. (2000, Mar 14). IBM Corp. turnaround. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing. Maney, K. (2003). The
maverick and his machine: Thomas Watson, Sr. and the making of IBM. Hoboken, nJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Garr, D. (1999). IBM Redux: Lou Gerstner and the business
turnaround of the decade. new York: HarperBusiness.
7 IBM Corporation. (2009). Working at IBM. Internal company presentation.
8 Hemp, P., & Stewart, T. (2004, December). Leading change when business is good. Harvard Business Review, p. 61.
9 Ibid. p. 68.
10 Daniel, T. (2009). Managing employee performance. SHRM Online. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from www.shrm.org/Research/Articles/Articles/Pages/
ManagingEmployeePerformance.aspx.
11 Boudreau, J. W. (2010). Retooling HR. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing. Cascio, W. F., & Boudreau, J. W. (2010). utility of selection systems: Supply chain analysis
applied to staffing decisions. In S. Zedeck (ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
12 Dowling, P.T., & Schuler, R. S. (2005). International human resource management. Excel Books. Schuler, R., Briscoe, D., & Claus, L. (2008). International human resource
management (Routledge Global Human Resource Management). Routledge. Robson, F. (2009). International HRM case study?international assignments. SHRM Online.
Retrieved June 10, 2010, from www.shrm.org/Education/hreducation/Pages/InternationalHRMCaseStudyInternationalAssignments.aspx. Wright, G. (2009, May 19). American
companies seeking to go global can face big HR hurdles. SHRM Online. Retrieved June 20, 2010, from www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/global/Articles/Pages/BigGlobalHRHurdles.
aspx. Smith, J. J. (2008, Oct. 1). Most multinational firms not tracking expats? ROI. SHRM Online. Retrieved June 20, 2010, from www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/global/Articles/
Pages/Expats%E2%80%99ROI.aspx. Smith, J. J. (2008, June 24). Employers need to improve long-term management of global talent. SHRM Online. Retrieved from www.shrm.
org/Publications/HRnews/Pages/EmployersneedImprove.aspx.
13 Boudreau, J. W. (2010). Retooling HR. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing. Cascio, W. F., & Boudreau, J. W. (2010). utility of selection systems: Supply chain analysis
applied to staffing decisions. In S. Zedeck (ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
14 Cappelli, P. (2008). Talent on demand. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing.
15 The present case, Part B, deals primarily with the first of these goals ? system design and data capture, while Part C addresses implications for the design of the HR organization.
16 Boudreau, J. W. (2010). Retooling HR. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing.
17 Weatherly, L. (2005). Competency models series part I: Competency models?an overview. SHRM Briefly Stated. Retrieved September 21, 2009, from www.shrm.org/Research/
Articles/Articles/Pages/Competency_20Models_20Series_20Part_20I__20Competency_20Models_20-_20An_20Overview.aspx.
Weatherly, L. (2005). Competency models series part II: Competency methods and uses. SHRM Briefly Stated. Retrieved September 21, 2009, from www.shrm.org/Research/
Articles/Articles/Pages/Competency_20Models_20Series_20Part_20II__20Competency_20Methods_20and_20uses.aspx.
Weatherly, L. (2005). Competency models series part III: Competency-based performance management. SHRM Briefly Stated. Retrieved September 21, 2009, from www.shrm.
org/Research/Articles/Articles/Pages/Competency_20Models_20Series_20Part_20III__20Competency -Based_20Performance_20Management.aspx.
18 Boudreau, J. W., & Ramstad, P. M. (2007). Beyond HR. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
19 Boudreau, J. W. (2010). Retooling HR. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Publishing.
20 For several examples connecting the talent pipeline to concepts from supply chain management, see chapter 5 in Boudreau, J. W. (2010). Retooling HR. Boston, MA: Harvard
Business Publishing.
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