What this handout is about
This handout will explain what literature reviews are and offer insights into the form and construction of literature
reviews in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences.
OK. You?ve got to write a literature review. You dust off a novel and a book of poetry, settle down in your chair, and
get ready to issue a ?thumbs up? or ?thumbs down? as you leaf through the pages. ?Literature review? done. Right?
Wrong! The ?literature? of a literature review refers to any collection of materials on a topic, not necessarily the great
literary texts of the world. ?Literature? could be anything from a set of government pamphlets on British colonial
methods in Africa to scholarly articles on the treatment of a torn ACL. And a review does not necessarily mean that
your reader wants you to give your personal opinion on whether or not you liked these sources.
What is a literature review, then?
A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a
particular subject area within a certain time period.
A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and
combines both summary and synthesis. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a
synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a new interpretation of old material or
combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major
debates. And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on
the most pertinent or relevant.
But how is a literature review different from an academic research paper?
The main focus of an academic research paper is to develop a new argument, and a research paper is likely
to contain a literature review as one of its parts. In a research paper, you use the literature as a foundation and as
support for a new insight that you contribute. The focus of a literature review, however, is to summarize and
synthesize the arguments and ideas of others without adding new contributions.
Why do we write literature reviews?
Literature reviews provide you with a handy guide to a particular topic. If you have limited time to conduct research,
literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone. For professionals, they are useful reports that
keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review
emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field. Literature reviews also provide a solid background for a
research paper?s investigation. Comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field is essential to most research
Who writes these things, anyway?
Literature reviews are written occasionally in the humanities, but mostly in the sciences and social sciences; in
experiment and lab reports, they constitute a section of the paper. Sometimes a literature review is written as a
paper in itself.
Let?s get to it! What should I do before writing the literature review?
If your assignment is not very specific, seek clarification from your instructor:
Roughly how many sources should you include?
What types of sources (books, journal articles, websites)?
Should you summarize, synthesize, or critique your sources by discussing a common theme or issue?
Should you evaluate your sources?
Should you provide subheadings and other background information, such as definitions and/or a history?
Look for other literature reviews in your area of interest or in the discipline and read them to get a sense of the types
of themes you might want to look for in your own research or ways to organize your final review. You can simply put
the word ?review? in your search engine along with your other topic terms to find articles of this type on the Internet
or in an electronic database. The bibliography or reference section of sources you?ve already read are also excellent
entry points into your own research.
Narrow your topic
There are hundreds or even thousands of articles and books on most areas of study. The narrower your topic, the
easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to get a good survey of the material. Your
instructor will probably not expect you to read everything that?s out there on the topic, but you?ll make your job easier
if you first limit your scope.
And don?t forget to tap into your professor?s (or other professors?) knowledge in the field. Ask your professor
questions such as: ?If you had to read only one book from the 90?s on topic X, what would it be?? Questions such as
this help you to find and determine quickly the most seminal pieces in the field.
Consider whether your sources are current
Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. In the sciences, for instance,
treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according to the latest studies. Information even two years
old could be obsolete. However, if you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of
the history of the literature may be what is needed, because what is important is how perspectives have changed
through the years or within a certain time period. Try sorting through some other current bibliographies or literature
reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to consider what is
currently of interest to scholars in this field and what is not.
Strategies for writing the literature review
Find a focus
A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated
bibliography would be organized. This means that you will not just simply list your sources and go into detail about
each one of them, one at a time. No. As you read widely but selectively in your topic area, consider instead what
themes or issues connect your sources together. Do they present one or different solutions? Is there an aspect of
the field that is missing? How well do they present the material and do they portray it according to an appropriate
theory? Do they reveal a trend in the field? A raging debate? Pick one of these themes to focus the organization of
Convey it to your reader
A literature review may not have a traditional thesis statement (one that makes an argument), but you do need to tell
readers what to expect. Try writing a simple statement that lets the reader know what is your main organizing
principle. Here are a couple of examples:
The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery and medicine.
More and more cultural studies scholars are accepting popular media as a subject worthy of academic
You?ve got a focus, and you?ve stated it clearly and directly. Now what is the most effective way of presenting the
information? What are the most important topics, subtopics, etc., that your review needs to include? And in what
order should you present them? Develop an organization for your review at both a global and local level:
First, cover the basic categories
Just like most academic papers, literature reviews also must contain at least three basic elements: an introduction or
background information section; the body of the review containing the discussion of sources; and, finally, a
conclusion and/or recommendations section to end the paper.
Introduction: Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational
Body: Contains your discussion of sources and is organized either chronologically, thematically, or methodologically
(see below for more information on each).
Conclusions/Recommendations: Discuss what you have drawn from reviewing literature so far. Where might the
Organizing the body
Once you have the basic categories in place, then you must consider how you will present the sources themselves
within the body of your paper. Create an organizational method to focus this section even further.
To help you come up with an overall organizational framework for your review, consider the following scenario and
then three typical ways of organizing the sources into a review:
You?ve decided to focus your literature review on materials dealing with sperm whales. This is because you?ve just
finished reading Moby Dick, and you wonder if that whale?s portrayal is really real. You start with some articles about
the physiology of sperm whales in biology journals written in the 1980?s. But these articles refer to some British
biological studies performed on whales in the early 18th century. So you check those out. Then you look up a book
written in 1968 with information on how sperm whales have been portrayed in other forms of art, such as in Alaskan
poetry, in French painting, or on whale bone, as the whale hunters in the late 19th century used to do. This makes
you wonder about American whaling methods during the time portrayed in Moby Dick, so you find some academic
articles published in the last five years on how accurately Herman Melville portrayed the whaling scene in his novel. 3/7
If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials above according to when they
were published. For instance, first you would talk about the British biological studies of the 18th century, then about
Moby Dick, published in 1851, then the book on sperm whales in other art (1968), and finally the biology articles
(1980s) and the recent articles on American whaling of the 19th century. But there is relatively no continuity among
subjects here. And notice that even though the sources on sperm whales in other art and on American whaling are
written recently, they are about other subjects/objects that were created much earlier. Thus, the review loses its
Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. For
instance, you could order a review of literature on biological studies of sperm whales if the progression revealed a
change in dissection practices of the researchers who wrote and/or conducted the studies.
A better way to organize the above sources chronologically is to examine the sources under another trend, such as
the history of whaling. Then your review would have subsections according to eras within this period. For instance,
the review might examine whaling from pre-1600-1699, 1700-1799, and 1800-1899. Under this method, you would
combine the recent studies on American whaling in the 19th century with Moby Dick itself in the 1800-1899
category, even though the authors wrote a century apart.
Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. However,
progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. For instance, the sperm whale review could
focus on the development of the harpoon for whale hunting. While the study focuses on one topic, harpoon
technology, it will still be organized chronologically. The only difference here between a ?chronological? and a
?thematic? approach is what is emphasized the most: the development of the harpoon or the harpoon technology.
But more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. For instance, a thematic review of
material on sperm whales might examine how they are portrayed as ?evil? in cultural documents. The subsections
might include how they are personified, how their proportions are exaggerated, and their behaviors misunderstood. A
review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made.
A methodological approach differs from the two above in that the focusing factor usually does not have to do with the
content of the material. Instead, it focuses on the ?methods? of the researcher or writer. For the sperm whale project,
one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of whales in American,
British, and French art work. Or the review might focus on the economic impact of whaling on a community. A
methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these
documents are discussed.
Once you?ve decided on the organizational method for the body of the review, the sections you need to include in the
paper should be easy to figure out. They should arise out of your organizational strategy. In other words, a
chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period. A thematic review would have subtopics
based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue.
Sometimes, though, you might need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the
organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the body is up to you. Put in only what is
necessary. Here are a few other sections you might want to consider:
Current Situation: Information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review.
History: The chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the
literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology.
Methods and/or Standards: The criteria you used to select the sources in your literature review or the way in which
you present your information. For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles
Questions for Further Research: What questions about the field has the review sparked? How will you further your
research as a result of the review?
Once you?ve settled on a general pattern of organization, you?re ready to write each section. There are a few
guidelines you should follow during the writing stage as well. Here is a sample paragraph from a literature review
about sexism and language to illuminate the following discussion:
However, other studies have shown that even gender-neutral antecedents are more likely to produce
masculine images than feminine ones (Gastil, 1990). Hamilton (1988) asked students to complete
sentences that required them to fill in pronouns that agreed with gender-neutral antecedents such as
?writer,? ?pedestrian,? and ?persons.? The students were asked to describe any image they had when
writing the sentence. Hamilton found that people imagined 3.3 men to each woman in the masculine
?generic? condition and 1.5 men per woman in the unbiased condition. Thus, while ambient sexism
accounted for some of the masculine bias, sexist language amplified the effect. (Source: Erika Falk
and Jordan Mills, ?Why Sexist Language Affects Persuasion: The Role of Homophily, Intended
Audience, and Offense,? Women and Language19:2.
In the example above, the writers refer to several other sources when making their point. A literature review in this
sense is just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up
with evidence to show that what you are saying is valid.
Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. The type of information you choose to
mention should relate directly to the review?s focus, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological.
Use quotes sparingly
Falk and Mills do not use any direct quotes. That is because the survey nature of the literature review does not allow
for in-depth discussion or detailed quotes from the text. Some short quotes here and there are okay, though, if you
want to emphasize a point, or if what the author said just cannot be rewritten in your own words. Notice that Falk and
Mills do quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study.
But if you find yourself wanting to put in more quotes, check with your instructor.
Summarize and synthesize
Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. The
authors here recapitulate important features of Hamilton?s study, but then synthesize it by rephrasing the study?s
significance and relating it to their own work.
Keep your own voice
While the literature review presents others? ideas, your voice (the writer?s) should remain front and center. Notice
that Falk and Mills weave references to other sources into their own text, but they still maintain their own voice by
starting and ending the paragraph with their own ideas and their own words. The sources support what Falk and
Mills are saying.
Use caution when paraphrasing
When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author?s information or opinions
accurately and in your own words. In the preceding example, Falk and Mills either directly refer in the text to the
author of their source, such as Hamilton, or they provide ample notation in the text when the ideas they are
mentioning are not their own, for example, Gastil?s. For more information, please see our handout on plagiarism.
Revise, revise, revise
Draft in hand? Now you?re ready to revise. Spending a lot of time revising is a wise idea, because your main
objective is to present the material, not the argument. So check over your review again to make sure it follows the
assignment and/or your outline. Then, just as you would for most other academic forms of writing, rewrite or rework
the language of your review so that you?ve presented your information in the most concise manner possible. Be sure
to use terminology familiar to your audience; get rid of unnecessary jargon or slang. Finally, double check that you?ve
documented your sources and formatted the review appropriately for your discipline. For tips on the revising and
editing process, see our handouton revising drafts.
We consulted these works while writing the original version of this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of
resources on the handout?s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find the latest publications on
this topic. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the
citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial.
Anson, Chris M. and Robert A. Schwegler, The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers. Second edition. New
York: Longman, 2000.
Jones, Robert, Patrick Bizzaro, and Cynthia Selfe. The Harcourt Brace Guide to Writing in the Disciplines. New
York: Harcourt Brace, 1997.
Lamb, Sandra E. How to Write It: A Complete Guide to Everything You?ll Ever Write. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed
Rosen, Leonard J. and Laurence Behrens. The Allyn and Bacon Handbook. Fourth edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon,
Troyka, Lynn Quitman. Simon and Schuster Handbook for Writers. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License.
You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout (just click print) and attribute the source:
The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
If you enjoy using our handouts, we appreciate contributions of acknowledgement.