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At what level of exposure to a particular toxic chemical will the chemical cause harm? Toxicity

1. All of the following are exmaples of environmental nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), except
World Wildlife Fund
Natural Resources Defense Council
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
The Nature Conservancy
Greenpeace
2. As a form of waste reduction, reuse does all of the following, EXCEPT
Decreases the use of matter resources
Decreases the use of energy resources
Cuts pollution and waste
Creates local jobs
Costs money
3. Which of the following is NOT a type of ewaste?
Discraded TV sets
Discarded computer printer paper
Discarded cell phones
Discraded electronic toys
Discarded computer monitors
4. At what level of exposure to a particular toxic chemical will the chemical cause harm?
Toxicity
Biomagnifications
Persistence
Response
Dose
5. Markets do well in the production and distribution of private goods, but are not so good at
Accumulating resources
Distribution of resources
Public services
Protecting sources of information
Developing strategies
6. Typical rain in the eastern US is at least _____ times more acidic than what normal precipitation should be
2
5
10
20
50
7. Governments intervene in markets to do all of the following, EXCEPT
Prevent degradation of open-access resources
Provide public services
Provide security ad protecton
Manage public resources
Direct production of goods and services
8. Developed contries, in the year 2000, pledged to devote 0.7% of their national income toward reducing hunger and poverty, and moving toward environmental sustainability. What is the average actual amount donated by these countries?
2.0%
1.5%
0.75%
0.50%
0.25%
9. The trickle-down effect describes how
Hhigh quality energy being converted to low quality heat energy
Toxic wastes filter down in landfills.
Use of microloans to alleviate poverty
Economic growth increases the number of jobs and helps the poor help themselves.
Movement of toxic pesticides percolate through a food web.
10. Which of the following would NOT traditionally support an eco-economy?
Shift taxes from wages and profits to pollution and waste.
Improve energy efficiency.
Shift from a carbon-based economy to a renewable fuel-based economy.
Repair ecological damage
Decrease subsidies for alternative fuel vehicles.
11. The process by which individuals and groups tries to influence or control the policies and actions of governments is known as
Lobbying
policy making
politics
all of these answers
none of these answers
12. Countries whose environment has been severely degraded may be characterized by any of the following, EXCEPT
Deterioration of vital infrastructure
Increased immigration
Allegiance to warlords
Breakdown of law and order
Violent internal conflict or civil war
13. Ecological and environmental economists consider which of the following to be a basic cause of environmental degradation, pollution, poor health, and premature death?
Taxes on wages, income, wealth
Using tradable permits or rights to pollute
Government subsidies
Laws and regulations to prevent pollution
Poverty
14. Human inputs of outdoor air pollutants occur mostly
In rural areas
In the mountains
Along the oceans
In urban areas
In the deserts
15. New and more innovative business replacing older ones that can no longer thrive under changing economic conditions is known as
Free market system
Economic competition
Economic succession
Neoclassical economics
Environmental economics
16. ________relates to the amount of a potentially toxic substance as it passes through food chains and webs.
Toxicity
Biomagnification
Persistence
Response
Dose
17. Which of the following countries did not adopt Agenda 21, the global agenda for sustainable development in the 21st century?
Russia
England
United States
Australia
Canada
18. The atmospheric layer containing 75% of the mass of earth’s air is the
Thermosphere
Mesosphere
Stratosphere
Troposphere
Tropopause
19. Levying taxes on each unit of pollution discharged into the air or water is an example of
Tradable pollution rights
Charging user fees
Regulation
Green taxes
Subsidies for beneficial actions
20. Which branch of the U.S. government is responsible for instructing federal agencies on their tasks?
Federal
Military
Executive
Judicial
none of these answers
21. Environmentalists say that the best way to handle soft drink and beer containers is to
Use landfills
Use paper bottles
Use stainless steel cans
Use reusable glass bottles and PET containers and recycle
Bury them
22. Which of the following is the LEAST desirable from an environmental standpoint?
Repair
Reduce
Reuse
Compost
Recycle
23. Since 1980, the gap between the rich and the poor has
Disappeared
Increased
stayed the same
Decreased
Stayed the same and then decreased
24. The system responsible for defense against disease and harmful substances is the
Circulatory system
Endocrine system
Immune system
Excretory system
Skeletal system
25. Most of earth’s weather occurs in the
Troposphere
Thermosphere
Mesosphere
Stratosphere
Tropopause
26. The U.S. population is
Shifting to the north and east
Shifting to the north and west
Shifting to the south and east
Shifting to the south and west
Shifting to the north and south
27. The leading cause of water pollution is?
industrial facilities
mining
agriculture
domestic sources
none of these answers
28. Pollutants in the Great Lakes of North America can take up to ____ to be flushed out to the Atlantic Ocean
25 years
50 years
75 years
100 years
150 years
29. To qualify as a megacity, it must have a population of ____ people
1 million
5 million
7 million
10 million
15 million
30. Waste that includes paper, food wastes, cans, bottles, yard waste, glass, wood, and similar items is called
industrial solid waste
hazardous waste
municipal solid waste
toxic solid waste
ewaste
31. In a warmer world, which of the following organisms are likely to be hardest hit?
polar bears
insects
weeds
fungi
all of these answers
32. One way to attempt to deal with the solid wastes we create is to attempt to reduce the environmental impact without trying to reduce the amount of waste produced. This is called
waste reduction
waste prevention
secondary pollution prevention
primary pollution prevention
waste management
33. With 4.6% of the world’s population, the United States produces about _____ of the world’s solid waste
one-tenth
one-fifth
one-fourth
one-third
one-half
34. Without changing what we are doing to the environment, the projected amount of warming by the year 2100 is
2 degrees C
3 degrees C
4 degrees C
5 degrees C
6 degrees C
35. In general, acid deposition has harmful effects for terrestrial ecosystems when it falls below a pH level of
3.6
4.6
5.6
6.6
7.6
36. Large masses of floating plastics in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are known as
Great Atlantic and Pacific Garbage Patches
Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Vortexes
Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Hotspots
Atlantic and Pacific Plastic Black Holes
None of these answers
37. Experts rate indoor air pollution as a
serious health problem for humans
non-serious health problem for humans
mildly serious health problem for humans
high-risk ecological problem
none of these
38. Which of the following is a point source of water pollution?
offshore oil wells
livestock feedlots
urban lands
croplands
parking lots
39. The degradation of Lake Washington resulted from the introduction by sewage treatment plants of which of the following?
Phosphorus
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Chlorine
fecal material
40. The most serious threat from ozone depletion is that increased UV radiation
causes cataracts
destroys phytoplankton
increases skin cancers
suppresses immune system
causes worse sunburns
41. According to a 2009 EPA report, between 1980 and 2008 the combined emissions of six major air pollutants decreased by how much?
17%
23%
36%
49%
54%
42. The amount of solid waste produced in the United States each year would fill a convoy of garbage trucks stretching around the world almost
2 times
4 times
6 times
8 times
10 times
43. Which has NOT been a major factor promoting urban sprawl in the United States?
A surplus of rural open space is still available.
Federal loan guarantees to WWII veterans.
The Homestead Act still gives land cheaply away in many areas of the country.
Cheap gasoline.
Poor urban planning.
44. Which of the following is NOT one of the world’s leading greenhouse gas producer?
India
European Union
China
Brazil
none of these answers
45. All of the following are on EPA’s “four most dangerous indoor air pollutants list,” EXCEPT
Asbestos
radon-222
styrene
cigarette smoke
formaldehyde
46. To be considered safe for swimming, a 100 milliliter sample of water should contain ___ or fewer colonies of coliform bacteria.
0
5
10
100
200
47. The natural nutrient enrichment of a shallow lake, estuary, or slow moving stream is called
Oligotrophy
Runoff
Upwellings
red tides
eutrophica

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