As we have discussed there are different research methodologies, qualitative and quantitative. In the latter it is possible to reach conclusions concerning the data with commonly acceptable mathematical methods. The key to those analyses is statistical significance which allows for considering the data in the aggregate. What that suggests is that there may be validity issues in an individual response to a survey but that may not materially affect the ability of the researcher to report the overall validity of the data and research.
Explain in your own words the logic of statistical significance and give an example to illustrate your answer. Provide an example of at least a nominal and ordinal variable and an example of a one-tailed and two-tailed test of significance.