RESEARCH ON SURROGACY AS A DILEMMA IN MEDICAL ETHICS

Introduction
Surrogacy is a course where a woman consents to carry a pregnancy that is hereditarily disconnected to her and her husband, with the aim to carry it to term and hand over the child to the hereditary guardians with whom she goes into an agreement for surrogacy. Same-sex couples, couples with fertility issues and single people who wish to be guardians are the most widely recognized sorts of individuals who look for surrogate moms (Surrogacy, 1990). In any case, is the issue of surrogacy so straightforward and clear that everything will be simple for those included in it, the couple and the surrogate mother? The response to this question is that surrogacy is an exceptionally troublesome issue, assail with many moral, social, and lawful dilemmas (Zaidi, n.d.).
Argument
Ethical dilemmas in surrogacy are numerous, and some of them incorporate issues with the agreement, parental status, privileges of those involved, exchange and enlistment of familial status, instalment to surrogates, inclusion of mediators, and unapproved understandings (Pozgar, 2005). Is it safe to say that we are ready to ensure the rights and interests of surrogate moms whom destitution makes defenseless? Will genuinely informed assent ever be given by surrogate moms? In light of the issues connected with surrogate parenthood, is not adopting a superior practice than surrogacy? The administration bodies and medical staff is required to arrange with the staff as per the surrogate mother and patients moving toward surrogate mother to keep up equity in the ethical issues (Horowitz, Galst, & Elster, 2010).
Then again, investigations additionally recommend of protecting the charge of immortality status by expressing that surrogacy is central opportunity according to the freedom contention and a piece of standards of independence, whereby an individual is permitted to settle on informed choices about their own matters. According to the freedom contention, the two fundamental moral issue raised are opportunity of agreement and regenerative flexibility (Shenfield & Sureau, 1997). Opportunity of agreement portrays about the power of an individual taking an interest in surrogacy to change the terms of agreement as indicated by the welfare of their own and the child expected to be received by surrogate mother. In such manner, the assent of offering and adopting an infant as per individual prerequisites is dismissed as a legitimating device (Horowitz, Galst, & Elster, 2010). Notwithstanding this, another promising protection in surrogacy is opportunity of multiplication. As indicated by this opportunity, a woman has the privilege to bring forth kids as surrogate and other ladies will have the capacity to contact these surrogates in need.
Notwithstanding profound quality and autonomy, other moral contemplations incorporate beneficence and non-maleficence. Beneficence alludes to the activities of therapeutic experts to enhance the prosperity of the patients (Sperry, 2007). Medical specialists contend that the as long as surrogacy doesn’t become commercial, it is ideal to be started in the patients who can’t manage children all alone to fulfill their psychological needs. Non-maleficence is characterized as a term of therapeutic morals which is concerned with the professionals and medical staff not to do any damage to the patients and instead they should do great to them in terms of surrogacy. This can be viewed as a piece of good restorative practice when it is not abused in terms of autonomy of ladies (Pozgar, 2005).
Encouraging therapeutic moral issues like constancy requiring faithfulness between the patients and the professional is vital to keep up certain touchy issues of surrogacy like the data of biological status or surrogate mother to the third party and keeping up security to the subtle elements as far as the whereabouts of the surrogated child to the surrogate mother (Zaidi, n.d.). Another angle managing medical ethics in a similar setting is veracity where medical staff is told to deal with patients genuinely. In the circumstances concerning the personality, the staff prefers abusing this guideline for the prosperity of the child regarding character and Veracity (McTeigue, Lee, & Aiken, n.d.).
Justice is likewise talked about in a similar setting to be observed particularly identifying with the prerequisites of the patient. There are many cases in which the surrogate mother looks for equity regarding installment or contract related issues, the specialist or therapeutic staff is encouraged to keep up dependability and sympathy in managing these issues to ascertain justice (Shenfield & Sureau, 1997).
Surrogacy contracts represent an adequately high number of serious dangers to individual autonomy to legitimize their impermissibility. These risks such as the surrogate mother’s loss of control over her body and every day exercises amid the pregnancy, the feebleness of giving up a kid to whom one may have framed a profound connection, and the ordinary perils of pregnancy, genuinely undercut the capacity to make an entirely informed and free decision to wind up distinctly a surrogate mother (McTeigue, Lee, & Aiken, n.d.). The social conditions of surrogate moms and the essentials of dispositional autonomy are investigated, similar to the state of mind toward women cultivated by such contracts, their impact on the tyke included, and their hurtful perspective of children as property.

Conclusion
Ethical dilemmas identified with surrogate parenthood are hard to handle as well as suggest numerous questions to humanity. Curiously, both commentators and devotees of commercial surrogacy go up against the human rights shield when supporting their positions. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 16) says, “Men and ladies of full age have the privilege to wed and found a family.” Section 27 goes ahead to state, “Everybody can partake in logical advances and its advantages.” By this thinking alone, if the innovation to have a kid using surrogacy is accessible, then women have each privilege to take it up (McLean, 1992). Along these lines, there are numerous moral difficulties connected with surrogacy which is exceptionally hard to handle (Surrogacy, 1990). Notwithstanding, it can end up being a help for humankind if all the ethical, lawful and social issues are considered and clung to in the public eye. It is imperative that strict laws be upheld, so this does not turn into a business and to guarantee that vulnerable women are not abused (Surrogacy, 1990).
Appendum
Importance of the research to:
The public. This research will go all long way in educating the public on the issues surrounding surrogacy. The research will enable them to know some of the key problems that surround surrogacy. This research will help the public to understand that going through surrogacy is not as easy as it may seem and the process might be hard for some. The research will also help those who want to be surrogate mothers to understand the dilemmas in it and how to cope with some of the risks involved in it.
Humanity. The research will help in understanding some of the legal issues that should be undertaken before entering into surrogacy. This will ensure that the rights of the surrogate mother are not exploited. The research also mirrors into the criminal procedures that happen during surrogacy and how they go against humanity. The research, in general, will help in restoring humanity since it will inform the reader of the ethical practices which are not followed and adhered to and how the unethical practices by both professionals and participants may be solved.
Things learnt about research in the process of writing the paper in terms of:
Library resources. One thing that I learnt is very important in research is going through library resources. During the writing process of this paper, I’ve been able to go through various library resources in order to come up with a final comprehensive paper. This has taught me how to analyze works by other people.
Research process. What I have basically learnt about the research process is the various stages involved. I have learnt that one has to analyze different works from different sources after choosing a topic for discussion. This should be followed by a clear introduction to show that one understands the area of research. The following stage is where one gets to discuss the topic thoroughly by analysing contemporary issues about the research and my point of view. The last part is where I get to give my stand and the recommendations about the issues.
The writing process. The writing process involves putting down your findings using the guidelines of writing a research process. Proper headings should be used when introducing another part of the research. I have learnt how to apply proper citations while writing the paper. The writing process should contain everything that I got during the research process and should be organized in an orderly manner.
My perspective. My perspective towards legal and ethical issues in health profession is that even though many issues are hard to solve, that doesn’t give room to exploit another person no matter the reason and all health professionals ought to adhere to the legal and ethical issues in the profession.

References
Horowitz, J., Galst, J., & Elster, N. (2010). Ethical dilemmas in fertility counseling. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
McLean, S. (1992). Law reform and human reproduction. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
McTeigue, J., Lee, W., & Aiken, T. Legal and ethical issues for health professions.
Pozgar, G. (2005). Legal and ethical issues for health professionals. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Shenfield, F. & Sureau, C. (1997). Ethical dilemmas in assisted reproduction. New York: Parthenon Pub. Group.
Sperry, L. (2007). Dictionary of ethical and legal terms and issues. New York: Routledge.
Surrogacy. (1990). [North Adelaide, S. Aust.].
Twine, F. (2011). Outsourcing the womb. New York, NY: Routledge.
Zaidi, S. Ethics in medicine.

61 thoughts on “RESEARCH ON SURROGACY AS A DILEMMA IN MEDICAL ETHICS”

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